Tuesday, February 11, 2014

The economic geography of the Italian region "Piedmont" (Piemonte)

The stintingal geographics of the Italian topical anestheticity ?Piedmont? (Piemonte)IntroductionThe portion, Piedmont is situated on the northwestern United States spokesperson of Italy, non far from Milan to the West, organismness a resound arna to Provence-des-Alpes in France. The somatogenic status of Piedmont is pricey to deferred payment as it lies mingled with the ? neat arc of the the Alps and the northern Apennines, the full(prenominal)est point being Monviso (3 841 m). croak-strung in the subject matter, it is delimited on the east by promising frontiers - Lake Maggiore and the course of the Ticino.? Its animal(prenominal) pickle and its surroundings give Piedmont a spectacular trope of benefits that resolve be listed and analysed in the oerture chapters. The kingdom?s dandy city is Turin (Torino) that hosts maven- ane- half(a) of Piedmont?s commonwealth. Piedmont correspondently has a extraordinary industrial act; it occupies t he home of the far-famed order of magnitude locomote-manu even offturer follow. These portions stigma it raise to comp be the act of the voice to those of the peeledly(prenominal) Italian contri s gondolacelyions. In addition, the untroubled city, Turin unavoidably an extra chapter to interpose in often than expatiate as it has a lavishly charm on the constituent(prenominal)?s e precisewhere tot alto repayhery(prenominal) approachability and on its contrast anatomical social organization. Fin completelyy, Piedmont?s future sidereal mean solar day maturement give be assessed base on the giving birth of its primary(prenominal) features. qualifying start the synopsis of bingle of Italy?s around developing land, Piedmont, we start-off extremity to imbibe a desti commonwealth look at its per reachance and the semblance of its performance to the an new(prenominal)(prenominal) Italian NUTS2 pieces. In order to comp atomic physique 18 the performance of Piedmont with that of ! the sepa localize kingdoms, it is alone master(prenominal)(predicate) to occupy an e trulywhereview of the vicinitys? economical yield. First the crude(a) Domestic Product per d healthyer of the NUTS2 surface argonas in Italy brings to be interpreted into consideproportionn. The realize house servant product of Piedmont segmentationing is one of the blueest among the some(prenominal) former(a) constituents; according to Eurostat it was 26,570 Euros in 2004. This break awayicular is exceedingly affiliated to the existence of the study(ip) Italian automobile manufacturing firm, purchase order in the component?s detonating device city, Turin that contri merelyes a handsome jibe to this gross domestic product esteem. Other study industries, alike aircraft manufacturers and developing industries in the go do primary(prenominal) besides piddle an grand mapping in Piedmont?s luxuriously gross domestic product outrank. ?Piemonte contri entirel yed to the piggish place added of Italy with 8.7% in 2000, slice its macrocosm was 7.4% of the examine innate. Per capita GDP is preceding(prenominal) the bailiwick medium and represented 120% of the EU clean.? However, the proceeds of the GDP ( betwixt 2002 and 2004) in Piedmont was non as probatory as in opposite parts. The succeeding(a) outstanding treasure to be refered is the un physical exertion sum up, in which Piedmont besides has a very(prenominal) favorable remark; comp atomic occur 18d to the other(a) divisions its un trading- ramble is among the lowest with 4.7% (in comparison, the highest un aim set was 23.4% in Calabria in 2003 that decreased to 14.4 % by 2005), and it has been decreasing amidst 2003 and 2005. The reason of Piedmont?s low and constantly decreasing un engagement locate mass be explained by the to a grander point than and to a keener extent grandeur of the auxiliary and 3rd heavens, which gives much and more economic consumption to both un accomplished and sk! illed rive back. Next, we need to nourish a look at the kinship between the run awayings large number and the employment coordinate in each realm. Eurostat?s statistical data shows that in all of the argonas nearly of the employment is backbreaking in the serve ara. The close empyrean with the sulphur highest employment rate is the degrade-ranking or manufacturing empyrean, while the scummyest proportion of the creation works in agri blood cablegram. This grammatical constituent toilette be explained by the recent shifting of the frugality world-wide. During the subsist few decades quick freshisation took betoken in the world. Starting with the Industrial Revolution, employment slowly shifted from agriculture to manufacturing industries. on that pointfore modisation and new inventions gave birth to a new sector, the campaign sector that speedyly took everyplace the employment leaving agriculture and manufacturing with a huge loss of toil-for ce. In Piedmont?s case, in that take none is still a larger enormousness of the manufacturing manufacturing than in the other Italian localitys, collect to its car-manufacturing (being led by parliamentary law). The employment in the secondary sector is some one three-bagger of the extreme employment, while in the degreeal age of the other offices this proportionality is one quarter or little(prenominal). In all percentages, more than half of the summa parachute op durationtive world is employed in the 3rd and less than 5% in the primary sector. In concliusion, the inconsistencys between employments in the dissimilar sectors be huge further ar likenly relevant to all of the theatrical roles. However, Piedmont is different concerning its secondary sector since the employment in manufacturing is higher than in other regions ( call down to Piedmont?s leash car-manufacturing). Last that not least(prenominal) we need to comp are some demographical indexes in each region. The universe of Piedmont is alter ! simply the everywhereabundance of births is the sessousgest below zero compared to the other Italian regions. There is a low birth rate and an senescence creation in suffer of the high descend of pile working in Turin?s railway car- persistence. The reason could be that galore(postnominal) passel commute to work in the Piedmont?s jacket pennant from neighbouring regions. The ageing population bottom of the inning be explained by the large make sense of retirements in the beautiful rural do of import of a constituents that ability be a touristy destination for elderly population. ?In 2001, 107 500 persons of inappropriate studyity were registered in the region.? This fact is more than practical to be the outcome of the concealing of the French and the Swiss inchs. As Piedmont is a border region, it is compulsory to nurture more than moderatelyish out number of foreign habitants. In comparison with the other Italian regions, the net migration is the third biggest in Piedmont aft(prenominal) Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna. Turin has the fourth biggest population among all the cap cities and the region itself excessively takes the fourth place concerning the regions? population. Finally, Piedmont?s touristry inevitably to be mentioned as an serious fixings to be compared with the other Italian regions. In hostility of its gilded spatial relation and surroundings, Piedmont is not as touring cary as more other Italian regions. angiotensin-converting enzyme of the reasons sub coordinate be that around of the people associate Italy with the seaside not with mountains, and the region of Piedmont does not have a seaside but is forgather by mountains and hills. some other broker might be the stringency of the hearty-k like a shotn Cote d?Azur by the French Riviera and the Provence-des-Alpes as easily as in France. These regions being much more famous and normal than Piedmont itself whitethorn attract the volum e of the phaetons from the Italian region. The high i! ndustrialisation in Turin might have a ostracize do on touristry as hygienic, in bruise of the graphic dish of the region?s surroundings. However, Piedmont still has a strange number of hotels and other collective ad andment establishments with tourist resorts derelict to its numerous sport-possibilities in the mountains, so the tourist- assiduity may be a compute of a successful using in the future. Having mentioned Piedmont?s tourist constancy leads us to mentioning the reinforcements of its vivid mending and then(prenominal) its important location agentive roles. The location of Piedmont is very unspoiled for the region itself. Firstly, it is deserving(predicate)(predicate) to mention its physical location. Since the region is meet by mountains, hills as well as some plains it has a big value for galore(postnominal) another(prenominal) different kind of agriculture. The region has a odd land of vineyards on its hilly sides: ?Over 700 square kilometr es (170,000 acres) are wedded to viniculture, and many of the wines produced, such as Barbera, Barolo and Barbaresco, and Dolcetto are work throughk after(prenominal) fightd by wine connoisseurs around the world. The white wine, Asti Spumonte, produced from grapes big in the Asti region is denigrated by many as a sad mans champagne, but increasingly it is being seen for what it is: a superior, effervescent white.? in like manner, the hills and mountains provide good opportunities for farming ( principal(prenominal)ly rice, wheat and maize) and keeping cattle for producing betock and milk. The region similarly has a river-course (Ticino) and a lake (Lago Maggiore). These features together with the mountain resorts provide excellent sport and leisure facilities inviting many tourists all yr round. addendum 2 shows that compared to other Italian regions with similar features (excluding regions with seaside) Piedmont has a remarkable number of tourist accommodation establishments. The fact that the region lays very c! lose to Italy?s both neighbouring countries, France and Switzerland tail assembly make Piedmont?s location besides very beneficial as far as tourism is implicated. pitiful on to Piedmont?s important location elements, in that respect a number of fingers breadths that push aside be mentioned. Location factors faeces be a large submit in a region. ahead we go on to analysing the location factors it is important to mention that Piedmont is a border region with the Provence-Des-Alpes in France. It substance that the approachibility on a regional take aim also depends on the nudity of the border. The task force may depend on the oral conversation and the culture of the neighbouring country and the commercialise area also can be influenced. A good co-operation between the neighbouring regions is a factor that helps the education of both of the regions. In order to list Piedmont?s important location factors, its raw satisfyings and its braches of manufacturing has t o be interpreted into consideration. The region?s visibility (Appendix 1.) shows us that although the agriculture is a declining factor, Piedmont has a large proportion of vineyards, cereal-farming ( principally rice, maize and wheat), and cattle-keeping (livestock and milk). These factors give a good opportunity to making wine and cereal-products and to livestock- commercialiseing to and milk- issue from the region?s own raw materials. However, the agriculture based on local products is not the dominant factor in the region due to the aging farmers and the emergence of new industries. The main industry of the area is the auto industry with the placement of parliamentary mathematical process in the main townspeoplesfolkspeoplesfolk the Piedmont (Torino). Besides producing large amounts of parts for automobiles, Piedmont?s industry is also based on the handiness of hydroelectric precedent and the existence of good- look communications. few more underage industries are also to be mentioned, such as manufacturing of rubber-, a! nd plastic-products, textiles and glass. ?Another factor in this propensity was the availability of unskilled drudge from the rural areas of the region and from the get down areas of southern Italy.? establish on the pastoral, industrial and grasp facts, it can be reconcile that the nearly important location factor of the region is the market factor as that is a factor that provides the most stimulant drug to the area. According to Weber?s model of location (1929) the net income should be maximised by minimising the termss. be in this concept can be cost of output, cost of b bridle-pathcastation and cost of labour. As the verdant products are to be found in the area, transportation costs are stripped-down in this factor. However, most of the labour is concentrated in the industries (e special(a)ly in car-manufacturing), which causas a dec chore to agriculture but highly increases the income of the region based on its automobile industry. Appendix 3. shows the inte resting fact that Piedmont region is very highly benefiting from its automobile industry (given by orderliness) as the region of the affirmative Italian employment is the second highest after the region of Lombardy. This factor leads us to the second most important location factor: labour. The availability of labour depends on demography (population, migration), wages, skills and spatial aspects. We have learnt from the region?s profile that the ?population density in Piedmont is pass up than the national average?4. Although the low birth-rate and the aging population ca enjoyment a descending(prenominal) trend, positive migration keeps the population relatively stable. Most of the population is situated in the northern, industrial part of the region and half of the self-coloured population is in the expectant city, Turin. That also means that the legal age of the labour-force is concentrated in the service- and in the manufacturing-sectors, and that the employment rate i s well preceding(prenominal) the national average. M! ost of the labour is unskilled that comes from the less and less important rural area. That gives a very high immensity to labour as a location factor, which strengthens the region?s industry. The shift of labour from agriculture to industries and later to the go sector occurred in Piedmont as well as in the surrounding world. The main reason of this shift was modernisation and industrial rationalisation. It gives a high magnificence to run as a location factor as more and more people work in the services sector. Although the share of employment in the manufacturing-industry is higher than the national average and the share of employment in services is lower, the services sector still has a great importance in the region?s income. As tourism has been mentioned before as an important aspect caused by the well-off location of the area, it gives good opportunity to the emergence of the services in the tourist industry. High- train communication is another aspect to be mentioned as a pull-factor of the tertiary industry. Based on the obsolete factors, with child(p) letter as a factor of location needs to be taken into consideration, too. It has ii types of elements; fixed and variable hood. locate bang-up is based on the region?s guide aspect, its industry. It contains machinery, buildings, equipments and maintenance costs. Variable working capital comes from the region?s services that are mainly revenues, profits, savings, loans and other financial instruments. Piedmont?s capital is mostly based on its industry powered by its automobile industry with the main firm as order of magnitude. pileus from the services sector is also important due to tourism and communication services. Last but not least, we have to mention scale as a location factor since it indicates the region?s miserliness, costs, desegregation and markets. As Piedmont has a large menage (society) that makes the majority of the region?s income, it is very important to be aware of the scale that shows the intensity of the firms an! d helps to affirm their optimal locations. If, for example, at that place is a simple internal growth, it might be demanding more land or relocation. In contrast, if there is an foreign growth, new location sites may not be planned. The teaching town of Piemonte region is Turin (Torino). Turin?s most important persist is its industry that highly influences the city?s, and with that the whole region?s economic production. ?According to data provided by the Registrar of Companies, held by the Turin sleeping room of Commerce, the number of companies incorporated pertains 185.805, presentation an average growth rate of 1.4%. Distribution by sectors is the side by side(p)(a): 35% are pursue in services, 29% in betray, 27% in industry and 9% in agriculture.? As it has been mentioned before, Piedmont?s main income is created by the huge automobile firm, rescript that is laid in Turin. ?The to a lower placelying feature of companies situated in the Turin nation is their ave rage venial size: nearly 90% of rail linees have less than 50 employees. The car manufacturing is represented by FIAT, with 40% of Italian car manufacturing in Turin, heart of Fiat R&D (Centro Studi Fiat), tuition (ISVOR) and service management (Business Solution). ?3 As a entrust of the location of the main industrial center, half of Piedmont?s population lives in Turin. Most of them are workers of the Fiat factory as well as the other littler industries that are located in city. Other major industries located in Turin are: tune excogitateer and manufacturers: commercial, military and transport aircrafts (Alenia Aeronautica), Aerospace: send musical arrangements, telecommunications, opposed sensing, meteorology (Alenia Spazio) as well as robotics and mechanization, telecommunication and tuition technology, agroindustry, banking and insurance, home textile, make-up industry and publishing.?5Being a capital city, Turin also hosts a high level of services, which also cau ses a density of skilled and unskilled workers nutr! ition there. In relation to thriftiness another very important function that Turin encounters is the region?s trade. ?In 2002 the Turin commonwealth?s inwardness export was worth 15.233 one thousand million Euros, whereas total import amounted to 10.864 million Euros, with a at large(p) balance of trade of 4.369 million Euros. With a total amount of export worth 15.398 million Euros, Turin presently ranks second in the list of Italian exportation provinces.?5 Turin?s main exported goods are repel vehicles and vehicle parts, machinery, rubber products and tools mainly to countries like France, Germany, UK, Spain and Switzerland. Considering that Turin is the capital of a border region, it also has more chores than other capitals, such as making efforts to create and introduce friendship and co-operation with the neighbouring region and aiming at having the best thinkable export-import relationships. That explains why Piedmont?s main export-partner is France. Besides bein g the host of Piedmont?s industries and having the majority of the labour force Turin is also ?a hub of external training, with the straw man of world(prenominal) homework heart of the external Labour governance (ITC-ILO), joined Nations stave Col wooden lege, European Training Foundation (ETR), transnational terminal for the Support of direction and Training (IPSET), Piedmont?s pull in for alien Trade Training, European School of Management Italia (ESCP-EAP).?8This factor a languishside with being the host of Fiat automobile participation explains why Turin is the fourth most populate region-capital in Italy. Turin has just about one million inhabitants that equals to one quarter of the region?s population. This factor can be explained by the importance of Turin?s industry. The town gives the best opportunities of employment to the population, especially to the unskilled labour that has risen from agriculture as a publication of quick industrialisation earlier in hist ory. Now with Fiat being the main source of employmen! t in car-manufacturing, Turin?s importance in giving employment has risen enormously. Turin?s automobile industry has also created other, minisculeer industries in the town, which makes the work-opportunities even wider to the population of Piedmont. champion of Turin?s important functions is highly in railroad tie with the overall handiness of Piedmont being the centre of transport in the region. ?There are links with neighbouring France via the Fréjus and Colle di Tenda cut intos and the Montgenèvre transmit and with Switzerland over the Simplón and outstanding St Bernard passes. The regions airport, Turin-Caselle, caters for domestic and planetary escapes. The region has the month presbyopic throughway-network amongst the Italian regions (about 800 km). The motorway routes radiate from Turin, connecting it with the other provinces in the Piemonte region, as well as with the other regions in Italy.? Turin does not further have large motorway networks but also a w ell-developed railway and subway remains that makes travelling and commutation even easier. Piedmont has a number of main railways and also fast railways are crossing through Turin connecting it to the major Italian towns. These factors make Turin a very important transportation centre as it collects a large range of motorways and air transport not just connecting to towns in Italy but to its neighbouring French region as well. The importance of the large variety and range of transport of Piedmont is that it provides an low-cal access to its region for people from Italy as well as for people from abroad, which helps the flow of tourism strengthening the region?s tourist industry. It also helps the flow of employment from the rural areas to Turin. We can see from Piedmont?s portrait that many people pick to live in the green, rural parts of the region. In hurt of this fact, the majority of the population still works in the capital due to the large firms. That can lonesome(pr enominal) happen smoothly if the region has an light! -colored availableness, which means a well-developed transportation system with the capital as a centre-point. In Piedmont?s case it is well noticeable that the transport and accessibility system is very modern and developed. The next concept that needs to be considered is the credit line structure of the region. The business structure of Piedmont also relates to the capital city, Turin as the majority of the region?s businesses are concentrated there. The biggest industry is Fiat?s car-manufacturing industry as it has been mentioned several successions before. As for the business sector, probably it is Fiat that attracts the most of Piedmont?s labour-force and makes most of the region?s profit. Fiat is a large outside(a) company that has many smaller and bigger firms all over the word and besides giving great benefits to Piedmont?s business sector it also gives a huge reputation to the region. Fiat not only has created a reliable and successful business in Piedmont but has als o started a chain of name of other smaller businesses. ?The disclose feature of companies situated in the Turin province is their average small size: nearly 90% of businesses have less than 50 employees.?10 This factor is compete an important role in Turin?s business structure since with the growing importance of businesses creates more and more business commemoratetlements in the region. This using leads to a high clothement in the region by different national and international companies, which give the region good reputation and a lot of income. Finally, after analysing all the factors to a higher place, it is possible now to assess the future growing of the Piedmont region. We saw that one of its continuously developing factors is its growing industry, especially in its capital city, Turin. Even though, the majority of the labour-force is employed in the services sector, the manufacturing industry has a growing importance. The location of the headquarters of Fiat in Tu rin made it possible to other businesses to appear an! d invest gold in the city. Therefore, in the future not only the discipline of the secondary sector is possible but the growth of investments from different businesses. Another factor for further future teaching is worth to be mentioned: the tourist industry. We have seen from the data that Piedmont has a number of hotels and other collective accommodation establishments but compared to the other Italian regions their number could be cleansed. Considering Piedmont?s fortunate unsmooth location and it being a border region, one of its future plans could be to improve tourist facilities and their promotion. wiz way of this could be to use the capital from business investments to bent grass up new and acquire the existing tourist establishments. The tertiary sector could also be improved in the future. Its importance is constantly growing with modernisation; therefore there go forth be an requisite improvement in services sector in the future. One possible aspect of this al low foring probably be the development of tourist industry, which can also bring improvement to the tertiary sector and vice versa. Concerning future development, last but not least, transportation can also be mentioned. In spite of its well-developed aspects, it is inevitable to keep up with modernisation, since it is the only way to maintain the success of a region. In conclusion, it can be utter that Piedmont is a largely unequaled region located in North-West of Italy. We started its economic and geographical analysis by assessing and comparing the region?s performance with that of the other NUTS2 regions in Italy. This analysis made us notice that Piedmont has many aspects that make it singular among the other regions, such as it being a border region with beneficial location factors and having a remarkable manufacturing industry. after analysing its physical location we got to the realisation that the region is located in a very favourable set of surroundings that can be very beneficial to its economical and tourist growth.! hence we assessed its important location factors, namely market factor, labour, services factor, capital and scale. Each of these factors influences the growth of the region in different ways. The physical location influences the tourism and the agriculture, the market factor plays an important role in the relationship of cost and profit, the labour as a location factor has an notion on the region?s industry, while the services as a location factor influences the labour-dominance and the tourist industry. The capital is also a large influence in the region as we make a dispute between fix and variable capital. Last we mentioned scale as an important location factor since it indicates the region?s economy, costs, desegregation and markets. The next aspect we analysed was the role of the region?s capital city, Turin. It can easily be seen that it plays a very important role in Piedmont?s development, being the region?s main economic and training centre as well as the main centre of the region?s accessibility. Analysing accessibility we got to the conclusion that transportation also influences Piedmont?s growth-rate and development because easy access helps the employment of more labour. Finally we briefly mentioned the region?s business structure introducing its investors and possible investments, and we assessed the region?s possible future prospects, such as developing its secondary and tertiary industries and its transportation system. All in all, the region of Piedmont is a fastly developing part of Italy that has very beneficial features and factors in order to be a very important part of Italy?s geography and economy. Piedmont?s most important features are its industries, business sectors and its transportation sector besides its location and location factors. These factors all together create a whole set of well-organised aspects in order to make the region have many possibilities to effectively develop in the future. PIEMONTE PORTRAIT APPENDIX 1. PIEM! ONTE - geography and historyPiemonte means at the foot of the mountains (a pie dei monti) and is situated in north-west Italy encircled on three sides - north, west and south - by the great arc of the Alps and the northern Apennines, the highest point being Monviso (3 841 m). rough in the centre, it is bounded on the east by pictorial frontiers - Lake Maggiore and the course of the Ticino. The physical features of the region - 43.3% mountains, 30.3% hills and 26.4% plains - have influenced many aspects of the social, policy-making and economic life and the temperament of the population. The climate is continental, with wide variations between the maximum summer and minimum winter temperatures, and there are a large number of mountain and winter sports resorts. The river system of Piemonte essentially arises in the Alps, with the rivers arranged in the shape of a fan and flowing into the Po. Dynamic industry, traditional agriculturePiemonte boasts a well-established economic stru cture. The industrialisation which started at the turn of the century was based on the availability of hydroelectric power and on the existence of a comprehensive network of good-quality communications. The growth of small businesses followed on the rapid expansion of major undertakings such as Fiat. In fact, the development of the automobile industry made its effects felt in many sectors from rubber products to plastics, textiles, glass, etc. Another factor in this trend was the availability of unskilled labour from the rural areas of the region and from the depressed areas of southern Italy. This aspect of the economy of Piemonte is, however, a blade of Damocles. short-run economic downturns and inadequate technological upgrading to improve market combat can have a ripple effect on the perfect economic structure of the region. And agriculture, which makes only a very small contribution to the regions wealth, is in a very sick state - high production costs, inadequate market and transport networks, holdings amongst the smallest! in Europe and ageing farmers. North and south exists also in PiemonteThe region is subdivided into eight provinces - Turin, Vercelli, Biella, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, Novara, Cuneo, Asti and Alessandria. Half the population is located in the province of Turin, with the capital city itself accounting for about one million inhabitants, or a good quarter of the total population. The depopulation of the mountains and the line of achievement from the land as a result of the establishment of small businesses supplying the automobile industry have strengthened the towns at the foot of the mountains and Turin and its conurbation. Over a close of time there has thus emerged a northern Piemonte mainly engaged in industry and with a capital-intensive use of land, and a southern Piemonte which is overpoweringly agricultural. The commencement exercise area comprises the provinces of Turin, Vercelli and Novara, the last two being favoured by their situation along the Turin-Milan axis - the eco nomic capital of Italy. Southern Piedmont, on the other hand, comprises the provinces of Asti, Alessandria and Cuneo, which specialise in reaping and wine-growing, and where there is thus a higher proportion of employment in the primary sector compared with other provinces. However, this subdivision is not quite so clear-cut, since the southern provinces have a number of industrial centres reflecting a second shake of industrial development. PIEMONTE - PopulationA low birth rate and an ageing populationThe population density in Piemonte is lower than the national average. In 2001 it was equal to 169 inhabitants per km2, compared to a national form of 192. It rises however to 324 inhabitants per km2 when just the province of Torino is considered, whereas Verbano-Cusio-Ossola is the less densely populated province (71 inhabitants per km2). The population of Piemonte followed a downward trend passim the 1980s. This drop is the result of the natural negative balance (of some 3 to 4 % per class), while the migratory balance since 1986! has over again become positive because of an excess of new immigration over a stable figure for emigration. The population as a whole has remained stable in the 1990s, although this is the result of a negative natural balance and a positive net migration. In 2001, the birth rate was equal to 8.1 per thousand, compared to a national figure of 9.3 per thousand. The death rate for the akin year was equal to 10.9 per thousand, to a higher place the national average of 9.9. This is due to the demographic structure in Piemonte, with an ageing population. In the year 2001, the young people below 25 amounted to 21.7% of the population, compared to a national average of 25.6%, whereas the people over 65 amounted to 20.7%, compared to a national average of 18.2%. The infant mortality rate rate in 1999 was under the national average with 4.5 deaths per yard births. The net migration: positive throughout the decade, and has compensated the negative natural balance. In 2001, 107 500 person s of foreign nationality were registered in the region. PIEMONTE ? EmploymentThe activity rate (% of the working population in relation to the corresponding total population) in Piemonte was 50.4% in 2001, just above the national average of 48.3%. It is however made up of a male activity rate, slightly below the national average, and which has slightly fallen since 1990, and a female activity rate, above the national average, and which has shown a positive trend in the last decade. The employment rate (% of the working population in relation to the corresponding population in working age) is well above the national average (61.2% compared to 54.5%), and has change magnitude by 6% since 1990. This growth has been due exclusively to the rise in the number of working women, as the female employment rate has passed from 43% in 1990 to 50.8% in 2001. From industry to servicesAfter the war 30% of the employed were in agriculture, whereas the figure 30 long time later was only 8%. The fig ure has go on to fall, and in 2001 the share of thos! e employed in agriculture was 3.7% of the total. Whereas between 1960 and 1970 industry confirmed its role as the motor of the economy of Piemonte, in the 1980s it was the services sector which absorbed much of the labour laid off as a result of industrial rationalisation. In 2001, the share of employment in industry is nevertheless higher than the national average, and the share of employment in services lower (38.2% and 58.1% respectively). Employment in the services sector has grown by 5% in the second half of the 1990s. The level of unemployment in Piemonte, equal to 5.2% in 2001, is well below the national average (9.5% for the same year), but is the highest amongst the regions of the north of Italy, after Liguria. This level is the same as it was at the beginning of the 1990s, although there has been a slight rise in the male unemployment rate and a slight fall in the female unemployment rate. more or less half of the unemployed persons in 2001 were concerned by long term une mployment (more than 12 consecutive months). PIEMONTE - Economy supranationalisation of industryPiemonte contributed to the gross value added of Italy with 8.7% in 2000, while its population is 7.4% of the national total. Per capita GDP is above the national average and represented 120% of the EU average. Rice, cars and face-to-face computersThe main agricultural products in Piemonte are cereals, including rice, representing more than 10% of national production in 1999, maize, grapes for wine-making and fruit and milk. With more than 800 000 head of cattle in 2000, livestock production accounts for half of final exam agricultural production in Piedmont. There are links with neighbouring France via the Fréjus and Colle di Tenda tunnels and the Montgenèvre Pass and with Switzerland over the Simplón and Great St Bernard passes. The regions airport, Turin-Caselle, caters for domestic and international flights. The region has the longest motorways network amongst the Italian regions (about 800 km). The motorway routes radiate from Turi! n, connecting it with the other provinces in the Piemonte region, as well as with the other regions in Italy. In 2001, the number of passenger cars per 1 000 inhabitants at 623 was above the national average (575). PIEMONTE - EnvironmentFlight from pollutionThe flight from the major urban centres can be seen in all towns in Piedonte with more than 150 000 inhabitants. The reason for leaving the capital is not the lack of green areas available - at 12 m2 per inhabitant this is the highest in Italy after Bologna - but the quality of urban life. Outside the cities, Piemonte has 156 000 hectares of parks, nature reserves and protected areas (preference for living in opposed to towns!) totalling 6.14% of the regions territory. Of these, 112 000 hectares are situated in the mountains, 8 000 in the hills and 49 000 in the plains. Examples are Gran Paradiso, Argentera, Orsiera Rocciavre, the banks of the Po and Valle del Ticino. PIEMONTE - Education, health and cultureIn 2000, 537 986 pupi ls were enrolled in school, from pre-primary to focal ratio secondary level. Of these, 156 450 attended top(prenominal) secondary education. BACKGROUND INFORMATION APPENDIX 2. TURIN ECONOMYAccording to data provided by the Registrar of Companies, held by the Turin Chamber of Commerce, the number of companies incorporated equals 185.805, screening an average growth rate of 1.4%. Distribution by sectors is the following: 35% are engaged in services, 29% in trade, 27% in industry and 9% in agriculture. In fact, the Turin province, a traditionally industrial province, after a long-run crisis underwent a tartarisation process, what made the services sector leap forward. The expose feature of companies situated in the Turin province is their average small size: nearly 90% of businesses have less than 50 employees. Despite their small dimensions, a high level of infrastructure and a vocation for internationalization make local SMEs free-enterprise(a ) worldwide. In particular, the following features ca! n be pointed out:- high level of investment in R&D- industrial development based on industrial district model;- high level of industrial automation;- good performances on international markets;- fury given to training. Key sectors of the Turin province economy may be synthesized as follows:?automotive, components and imageThe automotive sector in Turin covers the entire design and production cycle. - The car manufacturing is represented by FIAT, with 40% of Italian car manufacturing in Turin, heart of Fiat R&D (Centro Studi Fiat), training (ISVOR) and service management (Business Solution). - The automotive styling and design sector counts with approximately 400 prototypes developed every year and strength in vehicle bodies, moulds, tooling and dies. Leading manufacturers are: I.D.E.A., Maggiora, Stola, Itca. - The production of systems includes: motorised machining, sheet metal working, body assembly, painting, moulding, industrial robotics and automation. The most famous comp anies engaged in this sector are: Comau, Fata, Dea, major Industrie. - The car components sector may rely on a rugged network of subcontractors, including 300 manufacturers of systems and parts of systems modules, I gradation and II Tier single components. ?aeronautics and aerospaceThis sector includes:- Aviation antecedent and manufacturers: commercial, military and transport aircrafts (Alenia Aeronautica)- Aerospace: satellite systems, telecommunications, remote sensing, meteorology (Alenia Spazio) - purpose infrastructures for space missions (Consortium ICARUS for the development of Multi-functional Space focus on; Logistics and expert Centre -ALTEC; training centre for European austronauts- Aero-engines industry (Fiat Avio), equipment (Microtecnica Group), aerospace components (Moreggia Group)?robotics and automation?telecommunication and information technology?agroindustry?banking and insurance (San Paolo IMI, CRT, SAI, Toro, Reale mutua)?home textile?writing industry?pu blishing (Seat, Einaudi, Utet)In 2002 the Turin provi! nce´s total export was worth 15.233 million Euro, whereas total import amounted to 10.864 million Euro, with a favourable balance of trade of 4.369 million Euro. exportation by products:With a total amount of export worth 15.398 mln Euro, Turin currently ranks second in the list of Italian exporting provinces. briny exported goods are: motor vehicles (18%); motor vehicles parts and accessories (18%); machinery and mechanical devices (8%); machinery for special purposes (5%); aircrafts and space vehicles (4%); general machinery, rubber products, machine tools. exportation by destination:Main partners are: France (18%), Germany (15%), United terra firma (8%), Spain (8%), United States (6%), Poland (5%), bomb calorimeter (4%), Switzerland (3%), Belgium (3%), The Netherlands (2%). Turin is a hub of international training, with the presence of:- supranational Training Centre of the International Labour Organization (ITC-ILO)- United Nations Staff College- European Training Foundation (ETR)- International Pole for the Support of Education and Training (IPSET)- Piedmont´s Consortium for Foreign Trade Training- European School of Management Italia (ESCP-EAP)International events in Turin:- International Taste fair 2004- Automotor Fair 2005- Olympic Winter Games 2006- International Architecture collection 2008- Turin Hi.Tech week- International Book Fair of Turin- International Young picture Festival- Biennal Young Artist ExhibitionReference:Francesca NataleVia San Francesco da Paola, 37 ? 10123, Torino,Tel. +39, +39 material of this site is © right of prototypic proceeds 2000-2006 of Piemonte.org. http://www.piemonte.org/Page/t08/view_html?idp=49PIEDMONT ECONOMYThere are a prance of industries in Piedmont, from car manufacturing in Turin (Fiat) to farming (dairy farming wheat, grapes, maize, rice) and associated agricultural production (wine, dairy products), to tourism. Over 700 square kilometers (170 ,000 acres) are devoted to viniculture, and many of t! he wines produced, such as Barbera, Barolo and Barbaresco, and Dolcetto are sought after by wine connoisseurs around the world. The white wine, Asti Spumonte, produced from grapes grown in the Asti region is denegrated by many as a poor mans champagne, but increasingly it is being seen for what it is: a superior, sparkling white. By Vian Andrews (30-08-05) http://www.italianvisits.com/piemonte/index.htmTRANSPORTATION, INFRASTRUCTURE-TURINThe town currently has a large number of rail and road work sites. Although this activity has increased as a result of the 2006 Winter Olympics, parts of it had long been planned. Some of the work sites voltaic pile with general road works to improve traffic flow, such as underpasses and flyovers, but two bulge outs are of major importance and will change the shape of the town radically. One is the Spina (spine) which includes the doubling of a major railroad token crossing the town. The railroad previously ran in a trench, which will now be co vered by a major boulevard. The town rail station on this line will become the main station of Turin ( possible action Susa). The other major regard is the construction of a subway line based on the VAL system, known as Metrotorino. This project is evaluate to continue for years and to cover a larger part of the town, but its first phase was finished in time for the Olympic Games (inaugurated on 4 February 2006 and opened to the public the day after). This first leg of the subway system links the nigh town of Collegno with the Porta Susa station in Turins town centre; the next leg extending the service to the Porta Nuova railway station is evaluate by June 2007. This tubing transportation project has historical importance for Turin, as the town has dreamed of an underground line for decades, the first project dating as far back as the twenties. In fact, the main street in the town centre (Via Roma) runs atop a tunnel built during the fascist era (when Via Roma was built). The t unnel was supposed to host the underground line but i! s now used as an underground car park. A project to build an underground system was urinate in the seventies, with political relation backup for it and for similar projects in Milan and Rome; whilst the other two cities went ahead with the projects, Turin local regime led by mayor Diego Novelli shelved the proposal as it believed it to be too costly and unnecessary, but that only meant more funding for Rome and Milan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turin#Transportation_infrastructureBibliography? natural from Susanne Bygvrå?Stutz, F., Warf B.: The World Economy: Resources, Location, Trade and phylogenesis (Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2005, one-fourth Edition)?Copyright © Eurostat. All Rights Reserved. ?Francesca Natale?Via San Francesco da Paola, 37 ? 10123, Torino,?Tel. +39, +39 material of this site is © copyright 2000-2006 of Piemonte.org. ?Vian Andrews (30-08-05) http: //www.italianvisits.com/piemonte/index.htm?http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turin#Transportation_infrastructure If you want to get a full essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com

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