Monday, January 14, 2019

Nobel Prize Winner’s Talk

REPORT Nobel look on Winners Talk (A New kg Next Year)Main Speaker Nobel honor open Professor Klaus von Klitzing Lecture takings A New Kilogram Next Year How my Nobel Prize Contributed to this breeding Date Tuesday 2nd October, 2018 TIME 6pm VENUE JFK Lecture Theatre, UWIImmediately upon beingness invited to the event I was unbelievably excited. It made me feel like this ample world suddenly became smaller and things that seemed unreachable became all the more than accomplishable and all the dreams that could ever be dreamt could be in truth actualized. Of course acquire credit for attending was just a plus, but having such(prenominal) a once in a lifetime opportunity, to hear from bingle of the didder stars of the scientific world decidedly could not be missed. They say that large(p) leaders once had great mentors and that to be the exceed, you have to learn from the best. As such, hearing from one of the greatest minds in the world could not be passed. I had to kno w the secrets of his lifetime adventure.As I proceeded to the JFK Lecture Theatre, the dreamlike sunset and cool breezes brought an air of expectancy and anticipation. Located outside was a distribution table where we received additional reading resources. Upon receiving them, I walked privileged not knowing what lay in the minutes ahead.The seminar, I run aground out, was hosted by CARISCIENCE (The network of Research and schooling Institutions in the Basic Sciences in the Caribbean), in conjunction with the German Alexander Von Humboldt Foundation, The Faculty of Science and technology of the UWI, the University of Trinidad and Tobago and the University of the Southern Caribbean. This, I believed to be very commendable, having all the collegiate institutions glide slope together for a common purpose. This should be the goal of every individual, face and the global community as a whole.The event launched the annual CARISCIENCE Nobel laureate Lecture Series and this year they invited Noble Laureate Professor Klaus von Klitzing, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1985, for his discovery that under the appropriate conditions the resistance awayered by an electrical conductor is quantized that is, it varies by discrete steps quite than smoothly and continuously.The lecture was moderated by Dr. Richard Taylor, while the opening remarks were given by Professor Dyer Narinesingh the President of CARISCIENCE. He did round on the goals and vision of the presidential term which included a singular Caribbean intellectual space which encour durations problem result and converting know directge into wealth creation. He excessively mentioned that they set out to bring up collaboration with internationalistic affiliates which would expose stakeholders to relevant equipment, methods and technologies and henceforth be a voice for the Caribbean region. He excessively drew reference to Loreals vision innovation + Inclusion = InnovationThe objectives o f the organization seemed relevant and highly necessary to drive the ongoing progress being made within the region. To create a competitive, highly innovative, critically minded workforce to create a list and competitive edge for our Caribbean citizenry. He ended with the notion that it layaboutnot be line of descent as usual if we are to continue to harness the potential of unripe minds in this time.The Welcome Address was then presented by Professor Indar Ramnarine, who boost impactful research that should reshape the boundaries of your fields. I found this highly motivating as we seek to be world changers in this eon. non unless to vex space but to make a distinct dent in our respective fields and make full use of the time assign us, to better humanity. He in addition stated that, It is not only attainable to understand the intricacies of the world but also to break it. Ah yes, our vision should and then be to identify the problem, gauge the solution, implement the solution and continue to alter the solution.The Introduction of the Speaker was performed by Dr. Brian Cockburn, who articulated a summary of the life story paths and accomplishments of Professor Klitzing. This only sought to inspire me more on this jaunt to think bigger and dream larger.As soon as the Nobel Laureate Professor Klaus von Klitzing commandeered the stage, instantly the fires of passion that burnt ever so brightly oh so many long time ago, was distinctly evident, burning just as intensely even at this age. This jovial character, was clearly thrilled to be speaking about his lifes work and the opportunities it still presented him today, in being able to visit the Caribbean. I immediately could not help view, wow, I want at the closing end of my life, I still feel such passion, fervor and irradiate such vibrancy about the things that excite my soul.Not only was he surprisingly pleasant but his speaking skills were cold from boring, as he carried us on the journey w ith him through and through the transit of the discovery day, to giving us the information that we could indeed buy ourselves our let Noble Prize, however, in so doing not be privy to the elaborate Hogwart-esque feast they had to attend. It definitely seemed like something out of a storybook. He also mentioned the ages of the refreshful Noble Prize winners for Physics this year, with Arthur Ashkin being 97 years and Grard Mourou being 76 years.Absolutely incredible This just trys that age is just a number and that we should never let something like age stop us from achieving our full potential. This is a continuous learning treat and Life is indeed the teacher. It demonstrates perseverance, diligence and discipline to the highest degree and there is rope to be learnt from their immense persistence to the task. (whatisretirement?)As he proceeded to his topic A New Kilogram Next Year How My Noble Prize Contributed to this Development, he explained how the initial constant was a cquired. The Kilogram (kg), the basic unit off mass in the metric system and was considered equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kg, a platinum-iridium cylinder (Big K), kept at the International government agency of Weights and Measures laboratory at Svres, France.The true statement of every measurement of mass or weight worldwide, whether in pounds and ounces or milligrams and metric tons, depends on how about the reference masses utilise in those measurements bear be link up to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK). The close minuscule of accuracy discrepancies would have tremendous impact in fields such as medicine, engineering and electronics, which are dependent on fine measurements. Consequently, it opinions early(a) phenomena like force, energy and luminous energy, which use it as fundamental construction blocks for measurement.It has been identified that the cylinder is indeed changing in measurement collectible to ga s initially used in its creation and is now easy seeping out of the cylinder, consequently changing its dimensions making it an unreliable regulation for measurement. To facilitate this, a drastic change had to be made and as such in November 2018, the international scientific community plans to redefine the kg by basing it instead on a constant of constitution, making it a profound moment in the history of measurement.Thus, since the kilogram remains the only SI unit represented by an unstable artifact, the redefinition included expressing the kilogram in terms of Plancks constant, which would aid in avoiding future problems. Firstly, physicists required an accurate measure of Plancks constant which is the quantum-mechanical number that relates how a particles energy relates to its frequency and through E = mc2, to its mass. Thus once a fixed measure out is achieved to Plancks constant, a new-fashioned definition of the kilogram can be derived.In order to measure Plancks con stant precisely, two look intos are being conducted. one(a) known as the Avogadro Project, involves counting the number of atoms in two spheres of atomic number 14 that each have the same weight as the Big K. Having obtained this number, the precise number of atoms comprising a particular substance, researchers can calculate Avogadros constant, convert it for a esteem for Plancks constant and relate the kilogram to atomic mass.The second experiment uses an instrument called a watt (or Kibble) balance, which is a type of scale, that produces a value for Plancks constant by measuring a one-kilogram test mass, which is calibrated by using Big K, a dost electromagnetic forces. Plancks constant is proportional to the amount of electromagnetic energy required to balance the mass.Two differing universal constants are used in order to calculate the current and voltage that make up the electromagnetic force. The Josephson constant and von Klitzing constant are used. (Yes I got to meet one of the only two living remaining constants I felt truly blessed.) The discovery of the von Klitzing constant, is part of the Quantum vestibule Effect, which earned Professor von Klitzing, his Nobel Prize.While he worked at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, experiments conducted led to observations of the effect of magnetic fields applied to semiconductors allowed to cool to extremely low temperatures. This led to the discovery that electrical resistance rose stepwise, rather than smoothly and continuously, indicating an whole number fraction of a specific number, 25,812.807 ohms, now identified as the von Klitzing constant.Thus, the Quantum Hall Effect is now used worldwide for calibrating electrical resistances and the von Klitzing constant is utilised by the scientific community to measure current in a watt balance. Essentially, the fundamental constants can aid in establishing executable units that can retain their significance for lifetimes and species to com e, through the Quantum Hall boot, we were rest assured that the new kilogram impart be defined in such a way that nothing will change in our daily life. It will be indeed more stable and more universal. Granted that as Henry Marks stated, Science is measurement. Everything you measure is expressed in units, this was definitely a plus. He go along by explaining who decides the best definition of the SI Unit, which comprises of diplomats from sixty member states and forty-four associate states, at the General league on Weights and Measurements.The most recent having occurred in August 2018, based discussions to aline a resolution that would replace the current SI, with the revised SI, provided the amount of entropy uncertainties pertaining to the current standard. The precondition for the new kilogram must be reliable, as well as have an uncertainty smaller than fifty micrometers. This bargain was fulfilled in July 2017, and as such would be finalized at the succeedin g(a) conference which is to take place in November 2018.Finally, he noted that the best values of fundamental constants, (h, e, c Kb, Na) creates the most stable basis for the new system of units and hopefully by the next General Conference on Weights and Measures in November 2018, will be the replacement for the present SI System. The Professor, was also sure to reinforce the need as scientists to question continuously.Question nature and the way things work. Question the problems posed to you. Question what you understand and what you want to solve. He emphasized the need to always stay curious and always gain inspiration from other subject matter, which would bring new perspectives and ideas to trains of thought. He also asked several questions that he left up to us to solve.They includedargon fundamental constants really constant?How do they change due(p) to cosmic radiation, global warming, with time?Are there other fundamental constants in the universe?What happens if you com bine other fundamental constants? (with regard to velocity of ponderous/gases and temperature)What impact does the Quantum Hall Effect have on living cells? vox populi of the role and future of physics in lifePhysics is the buttocks of life and everything surrounding it. Every basic principle rests on the keister of Physics (of course this is me being highly biased). It involves the study of matter, energy and their interactions and other sciences are dependent on its theories to further develop their own and improve the quality of life.I do believe we have the upper slew as physicists and a greater responsibility to society to find answers to the most fundamental questions in life. To explain why the world work as it does and to provide adequate, substantial, mathematically correct evidence to question the bases of such thought. Physicists recognize beyond the normal realm and consider factors outside regular streams of thinking and are then conditioned to think outside the no n-existent box.This will prove ideal to the future of Physics in this society, as we break pull down to the fundamental backbone of structures and understand how they function, how they can be improved and how they can be manipulated by variables. This skill is essential for countless applications and is necessary for continued development in any sector.Technological advances can occur due to the discovery of new particles, forces and structures in the subatomic world. There would also be enhanced computational and calculation power causing extraordinary leaps and bound unfathomable before. With this would also bring the onslaught of artificial parole incorporate lifestyles to the common man, allowing multipurpose use.Not to mention the development of quantum artificial intelligence if large-scale computing is actualized. Vast use of computers and electronics would lead to even more advanced medical breakthroughs with prosthetics, which would enhance the human experience and even possible come to define consciousness in terms of natures fundamental forces.Additionally with the exponential advancement in space technology, conditioning for studying and visit the cosmos would seem closer to realization, even as space enjoy is made more readily accessible. Physics is indeed a tearaway(a) force into a very futuristic ideal, expanding space and time, and blazing the trail for the reorientation of the human mind.Cheers to the future of Physics

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