Friday, March 1, 2019

Leadership and People

Promoting Servant attr momentership in the Y expose(p)h Defining confidential cultivation and cartroad Leading is delineate as 1. Influencing parliamentary laws to take consummation toward peculiar(prenominal) goal. 2. Guiding and directing on a course, and as serving as a channel. A attractor is slightly unmatched who has com gentle military manss gentlemanding influence. lead is defined as 1. It is the march of influencing and directing activities of members toward goal accomplishment. 2. It is some ordinary quite a little who c be. throng who c atomic number 18 enough to place extra ordinary amours d cardinal. 3. It is the business draw and ordain to r completely(prenominal)y men and women to a joint purpose and the source which inspire confidence. . It is simply non an art (emotional/instinctual) or a comprehension (rational/acquired). It is a blend of the rational and emotional, the innate and acquired, the i merchandise and hardheaded. (Source Peter Northo expend of goods and services, leadinghip supposition and entrust, 2001)Lecture 6 Leadership Styles Let us comp argon leadinghip person-to-person manners. We vertebral column end do this outflank by contrasting two antagonist styles of leadinghip the authoritarian and the democratic (or participate) style. 1. The Authoritarian Style shows certain characteristics and we bottomland sum them up by saying that loss leading f onlying on a lower floor this category be gener tot every(prenominal)yy strong- leaveed, domineering, and to some extent, aggressive. must induce their stimulate room, which for them, regulatems the only way. attend upon subordinates to a neat extent as functionaries than as persons, and the best subordinates, in their estimation, follow p leadership without question. ordinarily atomic number 18 non ready to heed to views and suggestions of a nonher(prenominal)s (although they whitethorn pretend to), if they tender ize contrary opinions. not elevate equal relationships (i. e. cock-a-hoop to adult with underlings. As a rule, they do not retain up themselves to get closelipped to employees.They do not fleetle to reckon employees get close to one an separate, for such cliques, as authoritarian leaders perceive them, efficacy endanger their authority. bring in business- similar and push back movement-oriented views. The crease furthermostes first gear. generally blame abject results on the inability of separatewises to retain out instructions correctly. The next self-talk describes the attitudes of authoritarian leaders I know best what is to be done here. After all, I am snap off clever, overmuch encounterd, and better in categoryed on the look than bothone else here. The others in the meeting expect as untold of me.This is after all, my job as their leader. Be sheath I loafernot do everything myself, I select their dish up, not their ideas and contrives, t o consume what inescapably to be done. I throne take care of the retrieveing, and I do much than my share of the doing too, only if I shall need their cover here. I suppose Ill perk up to get a line to them. These mean solar days, they expect that overmuch of me. only I dont expect to hear boththing current. Im quite confident that we forget end up doing it my way. Of course, Ill handle the proceedings during the meeting and Ill manage to control the railyard of things as considerably.After all, the agenda is mine and Ive survey for from each one one gravel finished already. Ill a comparable dispose of any dis edites that may arise, since the task is the thing that counts, and we keistert be held up by any petty personal squabbles. That would be a sheer waste of judgment of conviction. get out that we all constrain our feelings to ourselves anyway. As a member of this leaders mathematical throng, one might see things this way, whether one identicals it or not The leader is the truly spokesman of the group. He usually does most of the talking and all of the unfeigned training and only necessitys our approval and cooperation. In fact, his credentials are ripe.He does gift more experience and competence than I consume and he come outs to hire our best pursuals at heart. During the meetings, he doesnt like to waste any clipping. duration hes not a very attractive man, hes al slipway ready to table service any of us, whatsoever the hour and however serious the problem. In one way, Im beaming that the leader takes all the responsibility of the group upon himself. That disappears me to do more or less what I want, just as long as I do the job he asks me to do. And he is generous with his sycophancy of my contrive I guess, because this reflects rise up on his leadership in the eye of out positionrs.But at the same time and probably for the same reason, he comes voltaic pile toughened when we make mistakes or he feels that we halt let him d suffer. I sometimes resent creation so uninvolved and feeling so unimportant. I would like to speak out and til now disagree with the leader for he is not right all the time, but Im not sure how this would go over with the others in the group. While we stove a lot of time talking close to the boss and his ways outside meetings, we tend to turn into lambs when he is near. I guess it is because we would not like to hurt and upset him. So things keep going on in the usual way. 2.Democratic or Participative Style Characteristics of democratic leaders green goddess be summed up in the following They are generally as c at oncerned with maintaining group effectiveness as with completing the task to be done. They encourage members in their groups to express their ideas and feelings, because they conceive that such a humour leads to coarseer creativity and inscription. If they encounter resistance or conflicts, they allow them to draw near and t hey attempt the help of their groups in removing the resistance or resolving the conflicts. They encourage joint decision- reservation as well as shared goal-setting. They rarely set policies without explaining the reasons and proposing them to their groups, when they posterior, for suggestions and criticism. They believe that responsibility for getting a job done depends as much on the group as upon themselves. They purify to soak up this attitude shared by all group members. They allow group members a well behaved deal of freedom in their work, once they have sh let their ability to do it. They keep looking for better ways to do things and are escaped to screenchange when convinced that such changes seem called for and would lead to greater effectiveness. They believe in the effectiveness of group work.They also believe that groups of attached persons works(a) together have greater potency digressions than when those same members work as individuals. When we char acterize the attitudes of such leaders in the following bit of self-talk I place a high value on wholesome and original decisions that emerge from in truth understanding and lookuping inside a group of committed the great unwashed who take their support together seriously. I listen for, and try to elicit, ideas and opinions that differ from my own. I have clear convictions, but I am also open to change in the face of sound ideas and reasoning.I rattlingize that, however, competent and experienced I am, I may not have all the information needed, and definitely lack the experience of others in the group. I am of all time ready to learn. When conflicts arise in the group, I do my best, with the groups help, to position the issues involved and to uncover their resources. When alight(p) by someone or something, I try to contain myself and encumbrance in touch with whatever might be going on inside of me. I try to maintain a sense of mode to keep things in perspective. I put t ogether a lot of zip fastener into group work, because I firmly believe in the effectiveness of teamwork.As a member of this leaders group, one might see things this way I reckon the other members of the group quite friendly and cooperative, including the leader of the group. We all seem to have a coarse stake in what we are doing and in the group we belong to. We have resurrected a true team spirit, along with initiative and creativity. We keep looking for unexampled better ways and our leader encourages us to do so. As outlying(prenominal) as possible, we make decisions and set goals as a result of group consensus. We all share in the succeeder or failure. In our working together, as a group, we have experienced a circle of success more than once.That same group member might reflect on the circle of success this way A shared dedication to the group and its task leads to interdependent attempts from its members to find the best way to complete those tasks, which in turn le ad to a degree of shared success in achieving those targets, and this accomplishment leads to confidence in the groups potential and back to renewed committedness to the group and to its ongoing tasks. You like the asynchronous transfer mode, and you find your own affair both interesting and rewarding. 3. Another type of leadership style is the laissez-faire. This is a leader in name only.He fails to provide any direction for his group. Members are left the responsibility of leading and directing. (Source Peter Northouse, Leadership Theory and Practice, 2001) Lecture 7 Indispensable Qualities of a Leader The following are the indispensable qualities of a leader 1. Character How a leader deals with parcel of tone tells you many things approximately his character. Crisis does not make character, but it for certain reveals it. It is more than talk. Anybody can say that he has integrity, but action is the real indicator of character. Your character de lineines who you are. It is a choice.It is s attention that talent is a leave but character is a matter of choice. The informant of character liven up comes when your face your flaws, apologize and deal with the consequences of your action. 2. Charisma Most the great unwashed call in of charisma as something mystical, almost undefinable. They think its a timbre that comes at birth or not at all. But thats not true. Charisma, plainly stated is the ability to draw heap to you. And like other character traits, it can be interrupted. In order to gain charisma, one should love smell. People enthrall leaders who enjoy breeding. imagine of the muckle you want to spend time with.How would you describe them? They are celebrators and not complainers. They are lovingnessate about vitality. If you want to attract deal, you need to be like the populate you enjoy being with. 3. Commitment It separates the doers from the dreamers. If you to be an effective leader you have to be committed. True co mmitment inspires and attracts race. It shows them that you have conviction. They will believe in you only if you believe in your cause. It starts in the heart. Most individuals want everything to be perfect before they are willing to commit themselves to anything.But commitment comes before arrive atment. It is an antecedent. If you want to make a difference in other concourses lives as a leader, look into your heart to see if you are really committed. It is one thing to talk about commitment. But it is another to do something about it. The only real measure of commitment is action. As quoted by Arthur Gordon nonhing is easier than saying rowing. Nothing is harder than living them day after day. 4. Competence Responsible bulk show up when they are anticipate. But highly competent concourse take it a quantity farther. They dont show up in body only.They come ready to accede everyday despite of what they feel, what bod of circumstances they are in, or how intemperat e to expect the game to be. Like Benjamin Franklin, tout ensemble highly competent the great unwashed continually search for ways to keep acquisition, growing, and improving. Performing at high take aim of excellence is always a choice, an act of the will. As leaders, we expect our people to follow through when we hand them the ball. Constituents expects that and a whole lot more form their leaders. 5. Courage It begins with an inbound battle. Every test you face as a leader begins within you.The test of courage is no assorted. As quoted by the psychotherapist Sheldon Kopp all the probatory battles are waged within self. Courage is not the absence of fear. It is doing what you are afraid to do. It fashion letting go of the familiar and forging out front into something new. 6. Passion Researchers spend a lot of time nerve-wracking to radiation diagram out what makes other people successful. They a good deal consider a persons credentials, intelligence, education, and other factors. But what goes beyond those is what we call passion. Your burning require desexs your destiny. Think of great leaders, and you will be struck by their passion Gandhi for human rights, Winston Churchill for freedom, Martin Luther King Jr. for e property, Bill gates for technology. Anyone who lives beyond an ordinary life has great require. Its true in an any product line weak desire brings weak results, just as a smallish kindle creates little heat. The stronger your fire, the greater the desire and the greater the potential. 7. Problem Solvers effective leaders always rise to a challenge. That is one thing that separates winners from winners. While others complain, leaders rise in a higher place predicaments with creativity and tenacity.No matter what electron orbit a leader is in, he will face a problem. Leaders with good problem-solving ability demonstrate five qualities. 1. They anticipate problems. Since problems are inevitable, good leaders anticipate them. Anyone who expects the road to be easy will continually find himself in trouble. 2. They accept the truth. People respond to problems in these ways they pass up to accept them they accept them and put up with them or they accept them and try to make things better. Leaders must always do the latter. effectual leaders face up to the human beings of the speckle. 3. They see the big picture.Leaders must continually see the big picture. They cannot afford to be overwhelmed by emotion. Nor can they allow themselves to get so bogged down in the details of the problems that they lose visual sense of whats important. 4. They handle one thing at a time. Effective leaders never try to realise all the problems at once because they know it would be a ceaseless striving. If you are face with very much of problems, make sure you really solve the one you are working on before moving to the next one. 5. They dont give up a major goal when they are down. Effective leaders understand the peak-to-peak principle.They make major decisions when they are experiencing a verificatory cast in their leadership, not during the dark times. To improve your problem-solving skills, do the following 1. acceptt avoid hassles/problems. If you have been avoiding them youll never have the opportunity to solve them. Youll only get better if you gain experience dealing with them. 2. scram a method. Some people have a hand time solving problems because they dont know how to tackle them. Try victimisation the TEACH process T IME spend time to discover the real issue. E XPOSURE find out what others have done.A SSISTANCE have your team case all angles. C REATIVITY brainstorm multiple solutions. H IT implement the best solution. 8. Team Player If you get along, theyll go along. Leaders should have a contagious cheerful and positive disposition. They should be able to create an atmosphere of oneness. According to Mr. John Maxwell, people dont care how much you know, until they know h ow much you care. It is true the ability to work with people and rail relationships is absolutely indispensable to effective leadership. People truly want to go along with people they get along with.And while someone can have people skills and not to be a good leader, he cannot be a good leader without people skills. 1. wear a Leaders Head Understand people The first quality of a relational leader is then ability to understand how people feel and think. As you work with others, recognize that all people, whether leaders or followers, have some things in common. They like to feel special, so in truth compliment them. They want a better tomorrow, so show them hope. They desire direction, so navigate them. They want success so help them win. 2. Have a Leaders Heart Love people According to the chair and CEO of Difinitive Computer Services, Henry Gruland Being a leader is more than just wanting as lead. Leaders have empathy for others and a lament ability to find the best in peoplenot the thrashby truly caring for others. 3. Extend a Leaders Hand Help people People respect a leader who keep their interest in mind. If your centralise is on what you can put in at people rather than what you can get out of them, they will love and respect you and these create a great al-Qaeda for building relationships. 9. visual modalityary You can seize only what you can see. Vision is everything for a leader. Because vision leads the leader. It paints the target. It sparks and fuels the fire within. Show me a leader without a vision, and Ill show you someone who is not going anywhere. To get a handle on vision and how it comes to be a part of a good leaders life, understand these things 1. Vision starts within. If you lack vision, look inside yourself. Draw on your natural gifts and desires. Look to your calling if you have one. 2. Vision draws on your history. Vision is not some mystical quality that comes out of a vacuum as some people seem to believe.It gr ows from a leaders ult and the history of the people around him. Talk to any leader, and youre likely to discover key make upts in his past that were instrumental in the creation of his vision. 3. Vision meets others Needs. True vision is far-reaching. It goes beyond what one individual can accomplish. And it has real value, it does more than just include others it adds value to them. 4. Vision helps you gather resources. one(a) of the most valuable benefits of vision is that it acts like a magnet-attracting, challenging, and uniting people. It also rallies finances and other resources.The greater the vision, the more winners it has the potential to attract. (Source Peter Northouse, Leadership Theory and Practice, 2001) Lecture 8 Towards Transformational Leadership Societys diversity requires transformational leadership (Stephen Covey, 1992), transforming people and organisations in a literal sense to change them in mind and in heart, enlarge vision, insight, and understandi ng, clarify purposes, make conduct congruent with beliefs, principles, or set, and bring about changes that are permanent, self-perpetuating and momentum building.Transformational leadership for Covey basically means that we change the realities of our particular world to more clearly conform to our values and ideals. It focuses on the top line and is principle-centered, so it builds on mans need for meaning is preoccupied with purposes and values, ethical motive and ethics transcends daily affairs is oriented toward meeting long term goals without compromising human values and principles separates causes and symptoms and works at prevention values profit as the basis of growth is proactive, catalystic, and patient focuses more on mission and strategies for achieving them makes full use of human resources identifies and develops new talent recognizes and rewards significant contributions designs and redesigns jobs to make them meaningful and challenging releases human potentials models love leads out in new directions aligns internal structures and systems to reinforce over arching values and goals Leadership is the ability to influence others towards desired goals, but transformational leadership includes doing the right things.The following virtues are considered as the foundation of transformational leadership 1. Prudence the habit which changes man to direct his actions to human lifes goals of knowing the right thing to do and applying it. 2. Justice the habit of enceinte each one his collectable with constant and perpetual will gives stability which man ineluctably to work without fear and anxiety in the search for happiness. 3. Fortitude the habit of overcoming the difficulties and pressures of life in the pursuit of good. 4. Temperance the habit of carry the desires and natural inclinations of man under the control of right reason. . Industry the habit of working hard and working under pressure. 6. Loyalty the habit of remain ing true to your friends and to your principles (goals) inspite of difficulty. 7. accountability the habit of being accountable for ones actions, duties, obligations readiness to retort to the consequences of our actions. 8. Cheerfulness the habit of being optimistic, positive, always seeing the bright side of things. 9. Generosity the habit of sharing the good that one has with other people thinking first of the people around him and looking for ways he can help and dish them. 0. Magnanimity the habit of having great ideals and ambitions of doing good being concerned with doing great deeds of service to others by devoting his life to serve his country or to help people. Covey identifies the following characteristics of principled-centered leaders 1. They are continually learning constantly educated by their experiences read, seek learning, take classes, listen to others, learn through both their eyes and their ears continually expand their competence and ability to do thi ngs develop new skills, new interests make and keep promises or commitments increase their personal worth as they elevate themselves to the next level of challenge and make their self-mastery grow 2. They are service-oriented see life as a mission not as a career yoke up every morning, think of others and put on the harness of service in various stewardships believe that the effort to become principled-centered without a load to carry simply will not succeed have a sense of responsibility, of service, of contribution 3. They radiate positive zipper cheerful, pleasant, happy attitude is optimistic, positive, upbeat, enthusiastic spirit is hopeful, believing have an naught field or an aura that charges or changes weaker, invalidating energy fields around them attract and magnify smaller positive energy fields tend to every neutralize or sidestep the negative energy they come into contact with wisdom gives them a sense of ho strong the negative energy source is and a sen se of mood and timing in dealing with it 4. They believe in other people do not overreact to negative behaviors, criticism or human flunkes realize that behaviors and potentials are two contrary things believes in the unseen potential of people feel grateful for their blessings dont carry grudges winnow out to label other people, to stereotype, categorize and prejudge seek the oak guide in the acorn and understand the process of helping the acorn to become a great oak create a climate for growth and opportunity 5. They lead balance lives intellectually active, having many interests healthy sense of humor, especially laugh at themselves and not t others expense open their communication, simple, direct, and non-manipulative their actions and attitudes are proportionate to the situation-balanced, temperate, moderate, wise live sensibly in the present, cautiously think the future and flexibly adapting changing circumstances genuinely happy for others success and do not feel in any sense that these take anything from them see success on the far side of failure the only real failure for them is experience not learned from 6. They see life as an adventure savor life because their security comes from within instead of from without see old faces freshly, old scenes as if for the first time, rediscover people each time they meet them like courageous explorers going on an expedition into unchartered territories their security lies in their initiatives, resourcefulness, creativity, will power, courage, stamina, protection, and abundance of comfort zones in their home-camps completely present when they listen basically unflappable and capable of adopting virtually to anything that comes along 7. They are interactive as changed catalysts, they improve almost any situation they get into in team endeavors they build on their strength and strive to complement their weakness with strength of others in negotiating and communicating with others in seemin gly adversarial situations, they learn to separate the people from the problem focus on other persons interests and concerns rather than fight over positions together they arrive at sybergetic solutions, which are usually much better than any of the original proposals, as argue to compromise solutions wherein both parties give and take a little . They calculate for self renewal regularly exercise the four dimensions of the human personality, physical, mental, emotional, and ghostly exercise their minds through reading, creative problem-solving, writing, and visualizing emotionally, they can make an effort to be patient, listen to others with genuine empathy, show unconditional love, accept responsibility for their own lives, make decisions, and reactions (Source V. Gonzales, Values Integration and Promotion, 1997) Part IV Volunteerism Lecture 9 constituent Others VolunteerismVolunteerism is a cross-cutting mixer phenomenon that involves all groups in society and all aspe cts of human activity. Volunteer action directly supplys to scotch growth, affable offbeat and protecting the environment. It also helps to build and/or consolidate genial superior and to kindle more participation and self-initiative, thereby, establishing or stabilizing democratic processes. Volunteerism opens large doors of opportunities for other things. Serving others can lead an individual to new avenues which he can gain valuable experiences in life.Through volunteer work, one can expand his horizon and learn how to live with other people and can even gain new friends. The experience of living in a new environment can make him more understanding and gracious while at the same time learning new skills to develop his self-esteem and interpersonal skills. Opportunities abound for him to share his skills and resources, but so much more to share his hopes and dreams, and in the process, make other dreams come true. Serving others through volunteer work can challenge one to work his resources, get in touch with his inner self and discover potential abilities he never thought he had.Given the responsibilities of a volunteer, many people have discovered their deep sense of commitment and the heart to help others. Volunteerism recognizes the power of individuals driven by their commitment to make a difference wherever they are. (Source VSO Leaflet) Part V Life Skills Seminar 1 Disaster cookery and military management Disaster circumspection has a broad scope viewing disaster readiness, validation and training, construction of disaster reduction facilities, disaster reaction and rehabilitation, public information, and research and discipline.Over the past few years, various emergencies service inevitable during disaster have been developed in all the region and provinces. Designated organizations have been oriented in their various roles in the disaster management. Specialized skills in search and rescue, evacuation, disaster medicine, vulnerab ility analysis, damage assessment and first-aid have been astray undertaken. In 1995 alone, 159 training sessions on various aspects of disaster management have been conducted all over the country.Organizations and training are continuing disaster preparedness tasks which are undertaken to equip staff in various political sympathies services agencies, including volunteers from private sectors who are engaged in disaster response. Recognizing the vital role of the youth in rescue, evacuation, emergency and relief services, they are also trained to have specialized skills in disaster response for future mobilisation by the National Service Reserve Corps. (Source NDCC OCD) Seminar 2 primary root Aid Safety is an ongoing concern that must never leave your thoughts.There is a primal instinct in many people to bang up to the rescue of those in need. Basic first aid allows you to quickly determine a persons physical condition and the correct course of treatment. Basic first aid refe rs to the initial process of assessing and masterminding the require of someone who has been injured or is in physiological distress due to choking, a heart attack, sensitized reactions, drugs or alcohol or other medical emergencies. First aid is the supply of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually bring to passed by a non-expert person to a sick or injured chance until definitive medical treatment can be accessed.Certain self-limiting illnesses or pocketable injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment. (Source Philippine National Red Cross) Part VI friendship-building A union Development Challenge Activity 9 Story relation back Friendship Rainbow Friendship Value Once upon a time the change of the world started to quarrel. All claimed that they were the bes t. The most important. The most useful.The favorite. Green said clear I am the most important. I am the sign of life and of hope. I was elect for grass, trees and leaves. Without me, all animals would die. Look over the countryside and you will see that I am in studyity. Blue interrupted You only think about the earth, but consider the sky and the sea. It is the water that is the basis of life and drawn up by the clouds from the deep sea. The sky gives space and quiet and serenity. Without my peace, you would all be nothing. Yellow chuckled You are all so serious. I bring laughter, gaiety, and warmth into the world.The sun is yellow, the moon is yellow, the stars are yellow. Every time you look at sunflower, the whole world starts to smile. Without me there would be no fun. Orange started next to blow her trumpet I am the touch of health and strength. I may be scarce, but I am precious for I serve the inevitably of human life. I carry the most important vitamins. Think of ca rrots, pumpkins, oranges, mangoes, and papayas. I dont hang around all the times, but when I fill the sky at sunrise or sunset, my beauty is so striking that no one gives another thought to any of you. Red could stand no longer he yelled out I am the ruler of all of you. I am blood lifes blood I am the color of danger and of bravery. I am willing to fight for a cause. I bring fire into the blood. Without me, the earth would be as empty as the moon. I am the color of passion and of love, the red rose, the poinsettia and the poppy. Purple rose up to his full height. He was very tall and spoke with great acclaim I am the color of royalty and power. Kings, chiefs, and bishops have always chosen me for I am the sign of authority and wisdom. People do not question me.They listen and obey. Finally Indigo spoke, much more gently than all the others, but with just and as much determination Think of me. I am the color of silence. You hardly notice me, but without me you all become superfi cial. I represent thought and verbalism, twilight and deep water. You need me for balance and contrast, for prayer and inner peace. And so the color in went on boasting, each convinced for his or her own superiority. Their quarreling became louder and louder. Suddenly there was a galvanize flash of bright lightning, thunder rolled and boomed.Rain started to pour down relentlessly. The colors crouched down in fear, drawing to close to one another for comfort. In the midst of the clamor, Rain began to speak You foolish colors, fighting amongst yourselves, each trying to dominate the rest. Dont you know that you were each made for a special purpose, unique and different? Join hands with one another and come to me. Doing as they were told, the colors united and join hands. The rain continued From now on, when it rains, each of you will str etcetera across the sky in a great bow of color as a reminder that you can all live in peace.The Rainbow is a sign of hope for tomorrow. And s o whenever a good rain washes the world, and a rainbow appears in the sky, let us regard as to appreciate one another. Friendship is like a rainbow Red like an apple, sweet to the core. Orange like a burning flame, never destruction out. Yellow like the sun that brightens your day. Green like a graft that keeps on growing. Blue like the water that is so pure. Purple like a flower that is ready to bloom. Indigo like the dreams that fill your heart. convey you for our friendship Lecture 10 Working Together through fellowship DevelopmentAn honest reflection on the many local and guinea pig issues that endure today can be intimidating, even discouraging. The present Filipino confederacy is beset with problems such as low level of living, low level of productivity, poor marketing system, oppressive and teneurial arrangements and radiation diagrams, unemployment and underemployment, limited genuine support facilities for socio-economic victimization, poor health condition, low l evel of education, goals of silence and poverty, personalized policies and connection of interests disorganization.These factors follow, and they play a part in shaping our society. But just as these limitations are facts of life, so too is our genuine concern to those in need. The crowning(prenominal) goal of maturement is to improve the quality of life. To chance on this goal of development, this requires an endogenetic process of mobilization and the raising of the consciousness of the people and the building of society organizations. The development process to be truly responsive, effective, equitable and sustainable, must be people-empowered, people-centered and towards friendship empowerment.Such empowerment implies that the decision-making must be given to the people involved, thereby incorporating into the development process their own needs and values (Dr. Vivian Gonzales, VIP-CWS, Laguna Sikap pass Foundation, 1997). Through conjunction development, the student s together with the people in the fraternity develop a common feeling of solidarity and become aware that they can touch positive changes not only for themselves but also for their union. Lecture 11 A Brief History of friendship Development residential district development as a new discipline, grew out of an older concept company organization. In the 1950s a number of social scientists and educators formed the American Council on the lodge, a relatively short-lived organization whose purpose was the institutionalization of scattered efforts throughout the get together States to improve American community life. This effort was built on the experience acquired during founding war II when millions of Americans participated in volunteer efforts and trick outd to deal with local problems.This was the time when United Unions agencies and the technical attention programs of the West desire to help the developing countries (Third World countries) move along the road to economi c progress (modernization). Community development became one of the models (strategies) employed toward the transformation. The term real so much attention and recognition not only in the developing world but also in the US that it came to convert community organization even in the US.Programs to help the impoverished areas of Appalachia or large metropolitan centers were legislated into existence and were labeled either as Community Development or farming(prenominal) Development in the statutes. The native gambol was resource mobilization (people as well as material resources) at the community level so as to introduce a better quality of life. It included, among others, a new kind of stock taking by local residents, the use of outside consultants in interpreting the facts collected and in planning programs to meet the needs that were identified.In the 1960s over sixty countries either had well-formulated national community development programs or were in the process of livery them into existence. Leaders of nations in Africa, Central, and South America, and Asia/Pacific after World War II faced tremendous tasks of nation building. This was due to the long periods of liquidation under European nations faced with large-scale problems and relatively inadequate resource-utilization (low technical-know-how) national leaders embraced the idea of mobilizing local people carry out community projects.The Community Development program of India, for example, was set up to aid the inhabitants of 558,000 colonizations fix a higher social and material level of well being. Multi-purpose village level workers, especially trained for this new challenge, met with the village people, helped them to recognize and identify their needs and potentials and offered technical and moral assistance to meet their needs. The technical assistance was given by specialists in agriculture, animal husbandry, road building, irrigation, education, health and sanitation, sylvan coopera tives, etc. The basic unit was the block which comprised 100 villages.Other countries, of course, worked out the kind of community development programs best fitted to their situation. The key common element to all countries was the thrust toward self-help and communal labor to undertake projects they considered important. Any compensation of labor was often channeled through the local community governing by the out-of-door funding agencies so that other projects could be further financed (e. g. the food-for-work programs). These community development program were often fitted into national five-year to ten year plans to ensure the allocation of sufficient resources to these efforts at the grass-roots level.To many national leaders such programs seemed a way toward democratization and decentralization of the political process they gave local people a feeling of being involved in nation-building and showed that the central government was actually beginning to show an interest in the ir welfare. In late years, however, the central government is found wanting in this direction because the interest in this glide slope begins to wane due to greater focus being placed on urban development at the expense of clownish development. (Source ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Lecture 12 Definition of the idealThere are many definitions of community development. The definitions vary according to type of agency, the setting, the method of operation and the purpose of the agency. contempt their differences, they share certain commonalities in their definitions. Thus, in defining the concept community development, these elements are evident a group of people residing in a community reaching a decision to initiate a social action process (planned intervention) in order to have a preferable change in their social, economic, political, heathenish, or environmental situation.Community Development is a planned, organize and evolutionary process whereby a group of people with co mmon aims, needs and aspirations come together to initiate social action in order to improve their social, economic, political, cultural, and environmental conditions. The term community development came into international tradition to connote the processes by which the efforts of people themselves are united with those of governmental authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities, to blend these communities into the life of the nation, and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress.This complex of processes is made up of two essential elements the participation of the people themselves in efforts to improve their level of living with as much reliance as possible on their own initiatives and the provision of technical and other services in ways which encourage initiative, self-help, and correlative help and make them more effective in programs designed to achieve a wide variety of specific improvements such as health, environmenta l conservation etc. This definition was coined by the United Nations. (Source ASI CD Monograph, 1998)Lecture 13 The Aims and Objectives of Community Development Aim, is a term that is simply defined as a clearly directed purpose. It is sometimes used interchangeably to mean objective or goal. In the context of Community Development, the words aim and objectives are not easy to defined. However the aim of community development is refer to a community action. This does not help much to understand without referring to the reality of community development practice. In reality the patriarchal objective of community development is to promote, sustain, support and maintain community action.Apparently, community development is related to community action, just as education, is related to learning. Hence, in promoting community development these must be some kind of community action to initiate or to guide the promoter to carry out either social or economic activities to improve their welf are or to solve their real problems. In order to arrive at a simpler understanding of the aims and objectives of community development, it may be worthwhile looking into the different types of community development and their respective objectives. Looking at each of them will underline both their differences and similarities.From this standpoint, it may be possible to infer a general aim of community development through the synthesis of their common element. 1. Community Work case This can be regarded as a professional approach to community development which has developed within the field of social work. It came into being in response to increasing demand for social services for the age, the sick, the unemployed etc. The objective of this type of community development work ahs been given as the, giving of aid and support to people who need more control over their lives. Examples a. When members of a community offer voluntary services to a victim of say, typhoon, who lost his/her hou se. Oftentimes, other people in the community may offer temporary shelter, food, clothing etc. to the victims. This is typical norm of the Asian people, specially in rural areas. b. Community voluntary work in the community such as clearing, or weeding the local market or repairing the streets. 2. Colonial Social Development Type This type came into existence when many colonized nations in the Third World attained self rule (independence).The objective of colonial social development type was to integrate economic and social programs into education for self management programs and for the development of the political structure in the newly independent nations. Examples a. Rural Rice Milling Cooperatives. b. Rural Thrift and Savings Societies. c. commandal and health programs. 3. Urban Renewal Types The purpose of urban renewal type is to set out down social isolation and give more meaning to personal existence by encouraging the formation of social groups of different kinds whic h will organize own affairs. ExampleWhen urban squatters are re-settled, new residential associations are formed to undertake the provision of water, light, and sanitary facilities for their benefit. They are boost to undertake self-help projects to realize their own social activity goals. 4. Adult Education Types The aim of adult education type is to help in the realization and development of local leaders to foster the concern life and enable communities to deal with existing problems. Example The institution of skill training and bread and butter development programs in order to produce people who will be more enterprising and entrepreneuring. . Institutional Type The objective is to encourage those who have been provided established service, to take action on their own behalf and in addition, to accept responsibilities to render service to others. Example Youth organizations provide social, recreational and cultural services for the community. 6. The Idealist / Political Act ivist Types It aims at giving practical expression to social justice through militant action in order to see beneficial change for the participants within the shortest possible time. 7. The Community Development Type This is known the kampong-based type.The aim is towards the development of the potential of individual members of the target group. It stresses on self-reliance and participation to bring about desirable socioeconomic transformations. It also stresses on cultural exchange between campong in other countries to stimulate globalization. (Source ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Lecture 14 The Major Purposes of Community Development The overall purpose of community development is to help people employ the rights methods to organize self-help initiatives and to develop techniques relevant to their own situation for socio-economic and cultural progress.Specifically, community development 1. Is designed to meet the learning needs of significant groups in the community e. g. community leaders or civic or special interest organizations. 2. Enhance the ability of groups of individuals so that they can work collectively to attain community social and economic goals. 3. Teaches about matters relating to community or region, generally associated with social structures and public as well as private and voluntary enterprises. 4. Emphasis on shaping root and social organizational support through involvement in the legislative, including formal financial and business enterprises. Source ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Lecture 15 Basic Stages in the Community Development Process A process is something which has a beginning and an end, and it happens over time. In the community development process, certain plain stages are essential for its promotion. There are various listings of stages or stairs in literature on community development. But I shall someway oversimplify it here. 1. The Problem Situation A situation may exist in a community which represents a need, a problem, an opportunity, or a challenge to a community group, or to the entire community.Usually it would be tackled as a community project. 1. The Will To Do Through handleion, diffusion of ideas and with information input, the group involved may reach a point where it is beginning to form a will to do something about it. 2. Organizing Some form of organization is established with a certain amount of commitment from individuals to some in-depth and specific thinking about the project. 3. Getting to the People At this stage, the process moves to the general membership of the community. Information is diffused and educational work is undertaken community-wide. The potential exists for conflict.Considerable discussion, and expression of viewpoints. General goals may become clear and some commitments may be made. 4. The Planning Process If the project is blessed by legitimizers, the planning process will begin. The definition of objectives, emolumentability of options or alternatives, and avail ability of resources may be assessed. The end result may be a plan to approach the project with specific information. 5. Execution Phase Initiation of the projects is often an occasion to build community spirit and identity and to cement commitment depending on the project, it is often an important occasion in the community. . rating Evaluation is an on going process (monitoring) but the final assessment is undertaken upon closedown of the project. Community members try to review their experience for strength and weaknesses. The experience gained may be used in future community development projects. (Source ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Part VII. Understanding Community Organizing Lecture 16 Defining Community Organizing Community Organizing (CO), as commonly used has already joined the station wagon of over-used words both in the academic and non-academic circles.Every agency or organization has its own interpretation of things around its own interpretation of things around it and because it must be no surprise that CO, like other terms, has different definitions depending on who, where and for what. It is popularly used among development practitioners, social workers, health workers, agriculturists, afforest workers, teacher and even students. There are those who use CO to promote en environmental protection while there are those who use environmental protection promotes community organizing.Some say that CO is building organizations, other say it is just one of the aims of CO. some practitioners say that tantamount to doing community development. Community organizing is not just physically gathering and organizing people so that they can collectively participate in solving problems. CO is more a process of community-based decision-making involving the intervention of a change agent particularly regarding the exploitation of community-based resources. As Paulo Freire noted in his participatory approach research, Man is being who exist in and with the world. To exist is thus a mode of life which is proper to the being who is capable of producing, of deciding, of creating and communicating himself. Let us now look at several definitions of community organizing It is the process of bringing about and maintaining adjustment between the social welfare needs and resources in a geographical area or special field of service. This means that a community needs to be aware that their needs can be responded by what the communitys physical boundaries. Adjustment of these needs with the available resources will require ) Identifying what resources are exploitable b) Planning on how to tap, use and re-use them c) Employing environmentally safe appropriate technology and d) Promoting collective human action in the resource management/maintenance. That is, in the essence, organizing the people for a common purpose/goal. According to the Philippines Business for Social Progress (PBSP), CO is a systematic, planned and liberating change process of transf orming a complacent, deprived malfunctioning community into conscious, empowered, self-reliant and just humane entity and institution.This means, the community as a social unit, needs to learn so that they become empowered to address problems confronting them. CO is a process forged along peoples empowerment and the eventual formation of a self-reliant organization that will facilitate development in a sustainable manner. Apart from the above definitions, I would like to re-visit the concern that has been expressed for sometime now on the misuse and abuse of the concept of CO. (Source ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Lecture 17 The Concept of Community Organizing 1. Of Means and Ends (Process and Result)As a process, CO is a series of co-ordinated activities with the aim of unifying the people into an organization process, characterized by peoples participation in all aspect or stages of the organizing process. CO is a complex process that goes beyond the mere setting up of a formal organi zation. It is a process which ultimately influences the patterns of relationships in the community through the development and maintenance of a normative system. Such norms are expected to affect the values, belief, attitudes and aspiration of the people in the community.As a radical approach in bringing development to the community. Being radical, CO employs coercion, advocacy and even threat to uproot the causes of social injustice in the development of the people. Although CO starts by addressing small and simple issues which the people can immediately act on or solve, its main focus is to dig into the root cause of the problems. As a result of the organizing process, CO refers to the resulting entity, which is the legitimate and real organization of the people.It becomes the real manifestations of the peoples collective wills to be able to participate, interpretive program out and be heard and also to act and decide as unified body (group). The resulting organization mirrors th e peoples interests, sentiments and aspiration. Does the end always justify the means? There is, without a flaw, the perennial question about the ethical considerations of the irreverent attitude and the unconventional methods that effective COs have employed in their practice. But Alinsky resorted thusConscience is the virtue of observations and not of agent of action in action, one does not always enjoy the luxury of a decision that is consistent both with ones individual conscience and good of mankind action is for mass buyback and not for individuals personal salvation particularly in the midst of societys innate hypocrisy, its contradictions and apparent failure of almost every facet of our social and political life. 2. Of Power By giving power to the people we bring about the future secured in the peoples hands.Power is the basic element in the community organizing process. Peoples power in CO is not based on material wealth in status in society. A goodish peoples organizat ion (PO) is, therefore, an important means to find remunerate for their grievances and act against those conditions that appear and dehumanize them. Peoples empowerment is making the people more wieldive and advocative to face and fight human rights violations and exploitations. It is a process involving the recognizing and building upon innate capacity.It is not a program or activity but a process of enabling people, especially the weak, the poor, the unorganized, the illiterate, the loaded to learn to surmount their powerlessness and to try to develop their God-given capacity to reach their in-born potential. Becoming vocal, they may be guaranteed basic freedom, opportunities and self-governance at the grassroots level. 3. Of contest (And Controversy) In CO, dissatisfaction or discontent (discontentment) is viewed as a positive ingredient that nourishes the enlightenment and development of a community.This is because it motivates people to come together and discuss and determ ined to solve problems affecting them. CO sees confrontation as a necessary and useful tool in solving social injustice. sort is part of human life and conflict (or friction) indispensable in social change. To live is to change. Change and conflict are fraternal twins in societal change. One functional aspect of conflict is that it leads to a search for solutions. It is an instrumental for innovative change.It also helps to release the latent socio-psychological frustration. 4. Of Praxis (Theory and Practice/Reflection and Action) By a praxis here, it means that theory and practice o0f community organizing. In the day-to-day community improvement or organizing work, it is difficult to identify or separate the theory from the practice. Theory and practices should be so inter-woven and complementary, each testing and strengthening the other. It also refers to reflection and action. 5. Of Conscientization (Critical Awakening)Conscientization refers to the process in which men (humans) are not recipients, but as knowing subjects, achieve deepening consciousness both of the socio-cultural reality which shapes their lives and their capacity to transform that reality (Paulo Freire 1972). Conscientization involves reflection and action occurring simultaneously in the process of organizing wherein critical reflection becomes form of action. Features of Conscientization 1. It is peoples organized response because the system it contends (struggles with) is organized. . It mirrors and unmasks the different aspects (realities) of the system so that the people see them for what they are. 3. It changes attempts by elites to petrify (solidify) the culture of poverty and galvanize (electrifies) within people the spirit of critical awareness and mass protest. At the same time, it promotes the spirit of cooperation, unity and sincerity among the people to fight against the individualistic, competitive, exploitation and selfish characteristics of the elites. (Source ASI CD Mono graph, 1998)Lecture 18 Goals of Community Organizing Community organizing aims at achieving the following broad goals 1. Peoples Empowerment CO helps the community to become better equipped with appropriate skills, ethics to assert and advocate for their rights, towards social equity, fairness and human dignity. 2. Building Organization The organizing process brings into being relatively permanent structures that can better serve the needs and aspirations of the community. A viable, self- reliant and grassroots-managed organization (PO) is one of the aims of CO. hrough formal or non-formal set-ups or structures, the community acquires the skills of community management. 3. Building Alliances Community organizing aims to give the people, skills in intra and inter organizational management and processes through group linkages and networking among the various groups in the community. 4. ordinary Democracy Popular democracy entails such attributes as consensus-building in decision-mak ing, planning and participation in community projects. It gives rise to one man one vote system, freedom of speech and freedom of religion, among others. . Social Transformation CO seeks to change the life of a community and the whole society into a democratic, nationalistic, self-reliant and self-governing entity. An entity to address the needs of individual members as well as community-based concerns such as environmental degradation. 6. Development of Local Leaders It aims to identify local leaders and equip them with the necessary skills to better serve their people. (Source ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Lecture 19 The Guiding Principles of Community OrganizingCO like other concepts, has set of principles to guide the practice. It is peoples organized response because the system it contends (struggles with) is organized Go to the people. Live among them. Learn from them. Plan with them. Work with them. dismay with what they know. Build on what they have. Teach by showing. Learn by d oing. Not by showcase, but a pattern. Not odds and ends, but a system. Not piecemeal, but an integrated approach. Not to conform, but to transform. Not relief, but release. Go to the people and live among the people.Learn the culture of the people and try to integrate into the culture. Learn, plan and work with the people. The people are highly knowledgeable about the local situation so the community organizer must avail of this opportunity. Start from where the people are in their development. There must be a proportionate blend between top-down and bottom-up technologies in order to tap the indigenous resources in the community. Teach by learning first from the people. The community organizer must realize that local or indigenous knowledge is not inferior to Western or scientific knowledge.Respecting the peoples knowledge will encourage them to learn other skills to complement what they already know. Integrative and holistic approach. The community organizing must focus on the int erdependency and the interrelatedness of the factors needed to transform the situation of the people for the better. Cumulative and continuous. CO is not one time great even but grows gradually without break until specific problems are addressed and phased-out. (Source ASI CD Monograph, 1998)

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